THE HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
The archive in Indonesia, as we know it today, has been in de facto since January 28, 1892. Exactly, it was when the Dutch East Indies Government established the Landarchief. On that date, it was also confirmed the position of landarchivaris having been responsible for taking care of the archives during the VOC service until the reign of the Dutch East Indies. They were also to assigned tasks in the field of administration and sciences. Moreover, the landarchivaris were also tasked to help the implementation of government at that time. The first landarchivaris was Mr. Jacob Anne van der Chijs who served the government until 1905. Mr. Jacob Anne van der Chijs was then substituted by Dr. F. de Haan 1905 - 1992. His works has been widely used nowadays as a reference for the Indonesian historians. De Haan was then substituted by E.C. Godee Molsbergen. He served the government in the period of 1922-1937. The last landsarchivaris during the Dutch East Indies government period was Dr. Frans Rijndert Johan Verhoeven. He served the government in the period of 1937 - 1942.
During the nationalist movement period in Indonesia, especially in 1926-1929, the Dutch East Indies government tried hard to suppress the demands of the Indonesians to be independent. For the purpose of the suppression, the Lansarchief was assigned a special task, namely: to participate actively in scientific works for the writing of the history of the Dutch East Indies, and to seek and secure the relics of the Dutch in the Dutch East indies. In the period of 1940-1942 the Dutch East Indies government established Arschief Ordonantie which aimed at guaranteeing the safety of the archives of the Dutch East Indies government. It contained the guarantee of matters as follows:
- All government archives which were owned by colonial government would be protected by the government.
- All new archives being created by the government in less than 40 years would be also protected by the government.
- All archives that had been kept for more than 40 years were being preserved in accordance with the rules established by the Algemeen Landarchief in Batavia (Jakarta)
Kobunsjokan (1942 - 1945)
The period of Japanese occupation was a silent period for the archive in Indonesia due to the absent of archives creation by the government at that time. This resulted in the absent of the archives regarding Japanese occupation at the present National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia. The archive during the Dutch East Indies period was named Landarchief. However, in the period of the Japanese occupation, it was changed into the term of Kobunsjokan. It was placed under coordination of Bunkyokyoku. In this period, like any other Dutch officials, some Landarchief employees were imprisoned in the Japanese camps. Despite its lack function for the Japanese government, the position of Landarchief was very important for the Dutch people especially for those who wanted to get information regarding their genealogical information. They needed the information from the archives in order to proof whether they had Indonesians descendants or not. For the Indonesians descendants, they would be released from imprisonment.
State Archives- "Arsip Negeri" (1945 - 1947)
The archive institution in Indonesia juristically started after the proclamation of independence of Indonesia on August 17, 1945. However, from the point of view of collections, we cannot deny that the National Archive of the Republic of Indonesia has been heavily influenced by the Landarchief and their archives collections. After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, the collections of archives of the Landarchief were all taken over by the Indonesian government. The archives institution was then placed under coordination of the Ministry of Education, Teaching and Culture. The name was changed into State Archives. The State Archives served the government until mid 1947; it was dismissed when the government of NICA came to Indonesia.
Landsarchief (1947 - 1949)
Ever since the Netherlands launched its first military aggression and succeeded in re-occupying Indonesian territory in 1947, the State Archives was once again taken over by the Dutch government. The name of the State Records was changed again into Landsarchief. The Director of the Landsarchief was Prof.W. Ph. Coolhaas. He served the Dutch government until the establishment of Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS) and the Dutch acknowledgement over the Republic of Indonesia at the end of 1949. As soon as the Dutch acknowledged the Republic of Indonesia, the archive institution was once again taken over by the Republic of Indonesia.
State Archives "Arsip Negara" (1950-1959)
Prior to the Round Table Conference Agreement on December 27, 1949, the Government of the Netherlands transferred the sovereignty to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia, including returning all government institutions. In the period of 1945-1947, the Landsarchief was once again under coordination of the Ministry of Education, Teaching and Culture (PP and K). During the transition process, the government of the Republic of Indonesia tried to keep the Landarchief to be as it was in a status of the State Archives. This was done in order to save the archives which were created during the period before RIS State Archives. However, the State Archive did not last long. On April 26, 1950, Ministerial Decree of PP and K number 9052 / B assigned State Archives to be changed its name into RIS State Archives. The Director of the RIS State Archive was Prof. R. Soekanto. Prof. R. Soekanto was the first Indonesian who led the archive of Indonesia. Prof. R. Soekanto served the archives for six years, exactly until 1957. His successor was Drs. R. Mohammad Ali. He was a historian who wrote a book of the Introduction of Indonesian History. The succession marked the establishment of director’s position in the State Archives. In this period, the position of a director general of State Archives was formally used in the organizational structure of the State Archives. The name of State Archives was officially used until 1959.
National Archives "Arsip Nasional" (1959-1967)
National Archives was under Coordination of Kementerian Pendidikan Pengajaran dan Kebudayaan (Ministry of Education, Teaching and Cuture)
In the period of Drs. R. Mohammad Ali as director general of the State Archives, there had been several changes in order to broaden the role and status of the State Archives. The first change was to place the State Archive under the Institute of History which was coordinated by the Ministry of PP and K. The change was established through Ministerial Decree number 130433/5, dated December 24, 1957. Another change was done after the enactment of Decree of the Minister of PP and K number 69626 / a / s that established the name of the State Archive into National Archives. This change is retroactive since January 1, 1959.
National Archives was under Kementerian Pertama RI (1961-1962)
The institutional change did not stop in 1959. Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 215 on 16 May 1961 established a new change for the National Archives. The National Archives was transferred under coordination of Kementerian Pertama (First Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia). The coordination included matters as follows: archives authority, tasks and obligations, administrations and personnel, and finance. The tasks and functions of the National Archives were also more complex, especially prior to the enactment of the Regulation of President Number 19 on 26 December 1961 on the National Principal on Archives. The Regulation established the arrangement of both archives and records administrations.
National Archives was under Menteri Pertama Bidang Khusus (1963-1964)
Presidential Decree No. 1888 of 1962 established a new role of the National Archives. It was now placed under Menteri Pertama Bidang Khusus (First Minister for Special Matters). The change of coordination was done in order to make the archive to be more focus on the task of historical research.
National Archives was under Kementerian Kompartimen Hubungan dengan Rakyat (1963-1966)
In 1964 the name of Menteri Pertama Bidang Khusus was changed into Kementerian Kompartimen Hubungan dengan Rakyat (Menko Hubra). The change was done in accordance with the tasks and functions of the minister, namely, to coordinate with the state ministries. The change of its name would mean that the National Archives was automatically put under the new ministry. Under coordination of this ministry, the National Archives were given the task of conduct archives administrations. Although the Archive was under coordination of the new ministry, the tasks and functions of the National Archive did not change. This had been referred to in Presidential Regulation No. 19 of 1961.
National Archives was under the Deputy Prime Minister for Political Institutions (1966-1967)
Decree of Deputy of Prime Minister No.08 / WPM / BLLP / KPT / 1966, established a regulation that the National Archive was placed under the Waperdam RI of Political Institutions. The National Archives, based on the decree, had its focus on scientific and historical activities.
The National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia (1967 - now)
They year of 1967 was very important for the National Archives. In this year, Presidential Decree 228/1967 of December 2, 1967 assigned the National Archives to be a Non Departmental Government Institution. Starting this year, the National Archive was directly responsible to President, whereas the budget matters were put under the budget of the Ministry of State Secretariat.
The establishment of National Archives as a Non-Department Government Institution was confirmed by the Letter from the Chairmen Council of MPRS no. A.9 / 1/24 / MPRS /1967. The letter asserted that the National Archives was as a government technical apparatus and this was not in contradiction with the 1945 Constitution. The status was the improvement of the works under the Presidium of the Cabinet. Due to the new status, in 1968 National Archives made the following submissions :
- Proposal for changing National Archives into National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia.
- Proposal of amendment of Presidential Decree No.19 / 1961 to be Law on the Basic Provisions of Archives.
These two proposals did not yet finish until the end of the period of Drs. R. Mohammad Ali (1970). Dra. Sumartini, the successor of Drs. R. Mohammad Ali and the first woman who served as Director General of the National Archives, continued to work on the proposals. Her efforts were then supported by the Minister of State Secretariat, Sudharmono, SH. The support achieved great success. The government enacted Law No. 7 of 1971 on the Basic Provisions of Archives. Three years later, Presidential Decree No.26 of 1974 established the role of the National Archives into National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia which was domiciled in the capital of city of Indonesia. It was directly responsible to the President. The decision, legitimately, assigned the National Archives RI to be a Non-Departmental Government Institution.
The policy for improving the tasks and functions of the National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia was initiated by DR. Noerhadi Magetsari, who replaced Dra Soemartini as the Director General of the National Archives from 1991 to 1998. It was in his period that there was a change of the new organizational structure with the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 92/1993 on the Position, Task, Function, Organizational Structure and Administration of the National Archive of Indonesia. The National Archive of the Republic of Indonesia, according to the Decree, was abbreviated as ANRI. Other significant changes were, first, the development of an organizational structure with the Deputy Director General for Capacity Development and Deputy Director General for Archives Administration. Second improvement was the establishment of the Technical Implementation Unit and the Representative offices of the National Archives in provinces. Along with the development of the organizational structure, Noerhadi also developed the number of human resources who worked in ANRI. He opened new recruitment of archivists for executing the archival tasks in ANRI. In his period, the number of archivists in ANRI increased dramatically. The peak was 1995-1996, when the number of archivists in ANRI reached 137 people. Dr. Noerhadi Magetsari served in ANRI until 1998. As his successor was DR. Moekhlis Paeni (former Deputy Director General for Archives Administration of ANRI and former Director of Regional Archives of Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi).
In the period of DR. Moekhlis Paeni, he continued to improve the reliable national archival system. He launched the vision of ANRI, namely to use archives as a unifying node of the nation. Due to the development of politics and government in the reformation era, and for the purpose of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of ANRI, Presidential Decree number 17 of 2001 was enacted for the establishment of the position, duties and functions, organizational structure and workmanship of Non-Department Government Institutions. Thus, the organization structure of ANRI also changed as referred to in the Presidential Decree.
Drs. Oman Syahroni, M.Si replaced DR. Mukhlis Paeni on 3 June 2003, as referred to in Presidential Decree No. 74 / M / 2003. In his era, ANRI developed Archive Management System Based on Information and Communication Technology (SiPATI). This was an application of electronic records management that was based on the development trend of global information SiPATI at that time was applied in some central government agencies.
On July 6, 2004, Drs. Djoko Utomo, MA officially succeeded Drs. Oman Syahroni as Director General of National Archives of the Republic of Indonesia as referred to in Presidential Decree No.87 / M / 2004, dated June 21, 2004. Djoko Utomo was the first Director General who served as an archivist before succeeding Drs. Oman Syahroni. In his period, Djoko Utomo tried to execute the vision and mission of ANRI by issuing numerous programs. He delivered all of the archival programs in line with to the development of globalization and the needs in the internal ANRI. He built a Public service building as the main core for ANRI’s public service. He made several renovations for the building in such a way as to create comfortable facilities for visitors and researchers to access archives. He intensified national and international cooperation in order to improve archives administrations including cooperation for sending ANRI’s employees to study abroad.
H.M. Asichin, SH, M.Hum, was the successor of Djoko Utomo. He continued to work in close cooperation not only with institutions in Indonesia but also with archives institutions outside Indonesia. He also initiated the establishment of Tsunami Aceh Archives Service in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province. Moreover, he also initiated the establishment of the Government Regulation for the enforcement of law number 43 of 2009. His effort gained success when finally the government enacted the Government Regulation number 28 of 2012 which clarified the function and role of ANRI. The Regulation established the obligation for developing the capacity of archivists in government, military, state-owned enterprises, local-owned enterprises and and universities.
For developing the quality of human resources, ANRI also conducted trainings and educations. It is important to improve the knowledge of the employees so that they can give the best service to people in accordance with the tasks and functions of ANRI. The activity of arrangement and description and preservation of archives has been done continuously and enhanced by ANRI. Besides these activities, ANRI also conducts the implementation of Regional Imagery program (Citra Nusantara) and the National Archives Network Information System program. ANRI also disseminates their achievements, roles and functions through media. It is expected that the public will be aware of the tasks and functions of ANRI which will eventually lead to awareness of the community to preserve and safeguard their own archives.
Director Generals of ANRI:
- DR. R. Soekanto (1951 - 1957)
- Drs. R. Mohammad Ali (1957 - 1970)
- Dra. Soemartini (1971 - 1992)
- DR. Noerhadi Magetsari (1992 - 1998)
- DR. Mukhlis Paeni (1998 - 2003)
- Drs. Oman Sachroni, M.Si. (2003 - 2004)
- Drs. Djoko Utomo, MA (2004 - 2009)
- M. Asichin, S.H., M.Hum (2010 - 2013)
- Dr. Mustari Irawan, MPA (2013 - now)